Bitter orange is an extract from the immature green fruit of the Citrus aurantium plant. It is sometimes used in small amounts in food as a flavorant and often used in pre-workout and weight-loss supplements. The terms “bitter orange,” “bitter orange extract,” or “Citrus aurantium” are often used interchangeably with the ingredient name “synephrine.” Synephrine and octopamine are compounds found in bitter orange. Although both synephrine and octopamine occur naturally in the Citrus aurantium plant, they also can be made in a laboratory.

Although safety concerns have been raised with regard to synephrine and octopamine, the data to support these concerns are not strong. Adverse events associated with dietary supplements containing synephrine—such as fainting, chest, pain, increased heart rate, and stroke—have been reported, including at least two case reports involving Service Members. However, it cannot be concluded that synephrine directly causes such adverse events, which might be due to other ingredients in the products (such as caffeine and yohimbine) and/or the combination of synephrine with other ingredients (such as stimulants), the amount of ingredients ingested (which are not always identifiable on the label), or contamination of the products. Still, Service Members should err on the side of caution when considering whether to use supplements containing synephrine since these products often are marketed for performance enhancement and weight loss, which are considered “high-risk” supplements.

Synephrine might resister on an initial urine screening test for amphetamines. If this happens, then the specimen goes to confirmation analysis. Synephrine will not cause a positive result on the confirmation drug tests. Octopamine will show up if a steroid test is conducted.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) bans synephrine and octopamine, while the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) bans octopamine but not synephrine.

Updated 16 October 2020


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